Chondrodysplasia is a short-legged phenotype characteristic of many dog breeds. Chondrodystrophy, a separate mutation, also includes a short-legged phenotype as well as susceptibility to intervertebral disc disease.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene controls production of the pigments eumelanin (black) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow). Six known variants of this gene are responsible for producing markings and coat colors including melanistic mask, grizzle/domino, black, and shades of red/yellow.
White spotting patterns that occur in many dog breeds do not have a uniform genetic basis, and the genetics are complex. In piebald/parti/random white spotting, the extent of white pattern expression varies, and markings are often asymmetrical.
Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKDef) is an inherited hemolytic anemia caused by a defect in the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Signs in affected dogs may include lack of energy and fatigue in dogs that appear otherwise fit.
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis, is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Several genetic markers are associated with risk of developing NME.