Alpha-S1 Casein

Quick Summary

The gene underlying the production of alpha-s1 casein in goat's milk shows polymorphisms which affect the amount of protein and fat produced. This test detects variants known to be correlated with high and low production levels of alpha-s1 casein.

Goat nursing kid

Phenotype: The gene underlying the production of alpha-s1 casein in goat's milk shows polymorphisms which affect the amount of protein and fat produced. Higher levels of alpha-s1 casein are associated with the best cheese making, and research suggests that low levels may be associated with reduced milk sensitivities for some people.

Variants:

  • E, F, N = associated with low content of alpha-s1 casein
  • A, B = associated with high content of alpha-s1 casein

Breeds appropriate for testing: Many breeds including common dairy breeds such as Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, Oberhasli, Saanen, Toggenburg

Explanation of Results:

  • Goats with any combination of "high" variants (A/A, A/B, B/B) will produce high amounts of alpha-s1 casein.
  • Goats with a combination of a "high" variant and a "low" variant (A/E, A/F, A/N, B/E, B/F, B/N) will produce intermediate amounts of alpha-s1 casein.
  • Goats with any combination of "low" variants (E/E, E/F, E/N, F/F, F/N, N/N) will produce low amounts of alpha-s1 casein.
Price

$30 one test per animal

Additional Details

Alpha-s1 casein is one of the four casein proteins found in goat's milk and is the most important of the four for cheese making. The goat alpha-s1 casein gene (CSN1S1) that produces the protein shows polymorphisms which affect the amount of protein and fat produced, with higher levels associated with the best cheese making. Research suggests that low levels of alpha-s1 casein may be associated with reduced milk sensitivities for some people.

DNA tests have been developed which can allow breeders to select production levels of alpha-s1 casein. This test is designed to detect variants E, F, and N which are known to be correlated with low production; high level variants are reported as A or B, which represents several known alleles.

Turnaround Time
2-6 business days
Type of Sample

Species

Type of Test

Results Reported As

Two alleles are reported, one inherited from each parent. The result interpretation is as follows:

  • A and B variants, are associated with high content of alpha-s1 casein.
  • E, F and N variants, are associated with low content of alpha-s1 casein.

Any combination of "high" variants will produce high amounts of alpha-s1 casein.

A combination of a "high" variant and a "low" variant will produce intermediate amounts of alpha-s1 casein.

Any combination of "low" variants will produce low amounts of alpha-s1 casein.

References

Martin, P., Ollivier-Bousquet, M., & Grosclaude, F. (1999). Genetic polymorphism of caseins: A tool to investigate casein micelle organization. International Dairy Journal, 9, 163–171. doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(99)00055-2

Marletta, D., Criscione, A., Bordonaro, S., Guastella, A.M, & D'Urso, G. (2007). Casein polymorphism in goat's milk. Lait, 87(6), 491-504. doi: 10.1051/lait:2007034

Maga, E.A., Daftari, P., Kültz, D., & Penedo, M.C. (2009). Prevalence of αs1-casein genotypes in American dairy goats. Journal of Animal Science, 87(11), 3464-3469. doi: 10.2527/jas.2009-1854