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A freemartin is defined as a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones. A connection between the two fetal circulatory systems develops early in gestation (anastomosis) and leads to the exchange of blood between the fetuses. Exposure to male hormones leads to underdevelopment of the female's reproductive tract.
Incidence of freemartinism in goats is generally low (less than 1%); increased risk has been observed when litter sizes are four or more. Other intersex phenotypes in goats can result from effects of the polled gene. This DNA test that detects presence of Y-chromosome confirms chimerism in the blood of females suspect of being freemartins.
Padula, A.M. (2005). The freemartin syndrome: an update. Animal Reproduction Science, 87, 93-109. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.09.008