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A DNA profile of species-specific microsatellite markers is obtained from the offspring, potential dam, and potential sire(s), and parentage analysis is performed using this data. In this process, a computer program compares the DNA profile of the offspring to the profiles of the presumed parents. Candidate sires and dams may either qualify or be excluded as parents based on whether they share microsatellite marker alleles with the offspring. Additionally, a variant in the amelogenin gene (AME) is genotyped to determine sex (reported as YX for males and X for females). A parentage analyst then reviews the results, ensures the sex matches what is expected, and sends the final report. If a listed parent or parents are excluded, or sex does not match what is expected, additional analysis is performed, including retesting of samples and the possible use of additional DNA markers to confirm the exclusion.
You can read more about the process of DNA parentage analysis HERE.
In horses, the following markers are reported: