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Cat Coat Color Panel

Large group of cats of different breeds and colors

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $55 for this panel!

This panel bundles together several coat color tests that are applicable to all breeds.

Dog Coat Color - Basic Panel (All breeds)

Group of multiple dogs of different breeds and coat colors

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $90 for this panel!

This basic dog coat color panel bundles together several genetic tests for coat color that are applicable to all breeds.

Friesian Health Panel

Friesian HorseThis health panel bundles together the three known tests for genetic diseases found in the Friesian horse.

Cocoa

A brown coat color resulting in a slightly darker coat than the brown color caused by other variants. This color is seen in French Bulldogs and was previously referred to as “non-testable chocolate”.

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM)

Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an inherited neurologic disorder of dogs characterized by gradual muscle wasting and loss of coordination typically beginning in the hind limbs.

Distichiasis

Distichiasis is a condition in which the eyelashes grow from an abnormal position on the edges of the eyelids. These misplaced lashes can contact the cornea (clear ‘window’ of the front of the eye), leading to irritation and corneal ulcers, which can impact vision.

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD1)

Feline polycystic kidney disease (PKD1) is a heritable form of polycystic kidney disease commonly seen in Persians and cats with Persian ancestry. Affected cats develop cysts on their kidneys, which often leads to renal failure at a later stage.

Appaloosa Panel 1

Black and white horse with leopard spotting

A variety of coat color as well as white patterning diagnostic tests specifically for the Appaloosa and Appaloosa-related breeds.

Appaloosa Panel 2

Knabstrupper with leopard spotting

The Appaloosa Panel 2 bundles together the diagnostic tests specific to determining the presence of the leopard spotting complex.

Bengal Coat Color + White Gloves (Birmans) Panel

Snow Bengal Includes all tests in the basic cat coat color panel plus a test for the Birman white gloving pattern and the Bengal charcoal coloration. This panel is valid only for the Birman breed and Birman crosses.

Bengal Coat Color Panel

Bengal cat

Includes all tests in the basic cat coat color panel plus a test for the charcoal coloration specific to the Bengal breed.

Boxer Health Panel

Sitting Boxer dog

This panel bundles together several genetic tests relevant to Boxer health.

Cat Coat Color Panel

Large group of cats of different breeds and colors

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $55 for this panel!

This panel bundles together several coat color tests that are applicable to all breeds.

Cattle Milk Protein Panel

Milk

This panel includes all three available tests for milk protein: beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin.

Dog Coat Color - Basic Panel (All breeds)

Group of multiple dogs of different breeds and coat colors

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $90 for this panel!

This basic dog coat color panel bundles together several genetic tests for coat color that are applicable to all breeds.

Dog Coat Color - Bulldog Panel

Basket full of Bulldog puppies

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $75 for this panel!

This panel of coat color tests is specifically tailored to the Bulldog breed.

Dog Coat Color - Great Dane Panel

Group of colorful Great Dane puppies

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $75 for this panel!

This panel of coat color tests is specifically tailored to the Great Dane breed.

Friesian Health Panel

Friesian HorseThis health panel bundles together the three known tests for genetic diseases found in the Friesian horse.

Horse Coat Color Panel

Herd of horses with different coat colors

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $80 for this panel!

The horse coat color panel bundles together several diagnostic tests to evaluate coat color.

Shetland Pony Coat Color Panel

Palomino Shetland PonyThe Shetland Pony Coat Color Panel bundles together several genetic tests relevant to coat color in the Shetland Pony breed.

White Pattern Panel 1

Horse with white patterning

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $40 for this panel!

The White Pattern Panel 1 offers diagnostic tests for a variety of white coat color patterns.

White Pattern Panel 2

Horse with white patterning

Promotional Pricing Now Available - $80 for this panel!

The White Pattern Panel 2 bundles together all of the white coat color/pattern diagnostic tests that the VGL offers.

AB Blood Group in Domestic Cat Breeds

The AB system is the major blood group system in domestic cats. The common blood types are A and B, and a third rare type "AB" is also known. These blood groups are genetically determined.

Agouti

The agouti signaling protein interacts with the melanocortin 1 receptor to switch between black and red pigments, creating a banding pattern in individual hairs. Mutations in the agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) prevent this switch from occurring, resulting in hairs of uniform color.

Agouti (A Locus)

The Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) gene interacts with the MC1R gene to control red and black pigment switching in dogs, affecting amount, type, and distribution of the two pigments.

Agouti (Bay/Black)

The agouti gene controls the distribution of black pigment, and determines whether a horse will have a bay or black base coat color.

Alaskan Husky Encephalopathy (AHE)

Alaskan Husky encephalopathy is an inherited fatal neurological disorder characterized by seizures, trouble walking, a high stepping gait, trouble eating, and visual problems.

Alaskan Malamute Polyneuropathy (AMPN)

Alaskan Malamute polyneuropathy is an inherited neuromuscular defect of varying severity most often characterized by abnormal changes in the dog's gait and mobility.

Albino

The feline albino mutation is a rare mutation that produces a white coat with blue eyes, and is recessive to the sepia and Siamese mutations.

Alpha-S1 Casein

The gene underlying the production of alpha-s1 casein in goat's milk shows polymorphisms which affect the amount of protein and fat produced. This test detects variants known to be correlated with high and low production levels of alpha-s1 casein.

Amber Coloration in Norwegian Forest Cats

In Norwegian Forest Cats, a recessive mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene leads to the gradual replacement of black pigment in the coat with yellow pigment, producing the amber coloration.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)

Five mutations in the androgen receptor gene, located on the X chromosome, are known to result in androgen insensitivity. Androgen insensitivity syndrome causes male horses to be sterile and appear phenotypically female.

Appaloosa Pattern-1 (PATN1)

Appaloosa Pattern-1 is a modifier of the leopard complex spotting (LP) and controls the amount of white in the coat pattern.

Behavior Propensity in Belgian Malinois

Adverse owner-reported behaviors (such as seizure, “glazing over”, episodic biting, and general loss of clarity) in the Belgian Malinois have been associated with certain genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene.

Beta-casein (A2 Genotyping)

Genetic variants of beta-casein, a protein of cow's milk, can be classified into two groups, A1 and A2, based on the specific amino acid in position 67 of the protein. This A1/A2 group designation may be of interest to breeders developing herds for human health benefits.

Beta-lactoglobulin

Beta-lactoglobulin is the major whey protein gene. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin protein in cow's milk.

Bulldog Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia) in Dexters

Bulldog dwarfism is a lethal genetic defect of Dexter cattle. Affected fetuses have severe disproportionate dwarfism, a short vertebral column, a large head, and are naturally aborted around seven months of gestation. The two known mutations are specific to Dexter cattle and may be present in Dexter crossbreds.

Bulldog Dwarfism (Chondrodysplasia) in Miniature Zebus

Bulldog dwarfism is a lethal genetic defect of Miniature Zebu cattle. Affected fetuses have disproportionate dwarfism, a short and compressed vertebral column, a large head, short, stocky limbs, and are naturally aborted around seven months of gestation. The mutation that causes this defect is specific to Zebu cattle and is different from the Dexter mutations.

Burmese Head Defect

Burmese head defect (BHD), or congenital frontonasal dysplasia, is an inherited defect found in Burmese cats that is characterized by improper development and subsequent malformation of the skull and facial features.

Burmese Hypokalemia

Burmese hypokalemia is an inherited disorder found in Burmese cats that is characterized by skeletal muscle weakness that can cause affected cats to have trouble walking and holding their heads correctly.

Burmese Russet Coat Color

Burmese russet coat color is a coat color that develops with age and is characterized by progressive amounts of red pigment on the head and dorsal surfaces.

Camarillo White - W4

Camarillo White is a dominant white coat color characterized by a completely white coat, mane, and tail, and is found exclusively in the Camarillo White Horse.

Canine Genetic Diversity

The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers that will determine genetic diversity across the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions. This test panel is useful to breeders who wish to track and increase genetic diversity of their breed as a long term goal. Please note, this test will not identify breed.

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy 1 (CMR1)

Canine multifocal retinopathy 1 is an inherited eye disease characterized by areas of retinal detachment. The disease does not typically lead to blindness or vision deficits.

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy 2 (CMR2)

Canine multifocal retinopathy 2 is an inherited eye disease characterized by areas of retinal detachment. The disease does not typically lead to blindness or vision deficits. The CMR2 mutation is associated with the Coton de Tulear breed.

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy 3 (CMR3)

Canine multifocal retinopathy 3 is an inherited eye disease characterized by areas of retinal detachment. The disease does not typically lead to blindness or vision deficits. The CMR3 mutation is associated with the Finnish Lapphund, Lapponian Herder, and Swedish Lapphund breeds.

Cat Ancestry

The Cat Ancestry test traces the lineage of your cat and provides results for common physical traits of coat color, fur length, and coat type.

Cerebellar Abiotrophy (CA)

Equine cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is an inherited neurological condition found primarily in Arabian horses, and is characterized by neurological defects in foals including head tremors and ataxia.

Champagne

Champagne is a coat color dilution responsible for diluting both red and black pigment as well as causing pinkish/lavender skin and amber-colored eyes.

Charcoal Pattern in Bengals

Charcoal Bengals sport an unusual coat marking of a darker face mask and dark thick dorsal stripe ("cape"). This “charcoal” pattern is produced by the combination of a domestic cat non-agouti variant and an Asian Leopard Cat agouti variant.

Cholesterol Deficiency (CD) in Holsteins

Cholesterol deficiency (CD) is a recessive genetic disorder in Holstein cattle that affects lipid metabolism and causes young calves to die as a consequence of chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive.

Chronic Wasting Disease

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of elk and other cervids in North America. A natural mutation in the prion protein gene in elk has been found to affect susceptibility to CWD and disease progression.

Coat Length

Five recessive variants in the fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF5) gene are associated with long hair phenotypes in dogs.

Cocoa

A brown coat color resulting in a slightly darker coat than the brown color caused by other variants. This color is seen in French Bulldogs and was previously referred to as “non-testable chocolate”.

Colorpoint Restriction

Cats with colored 'points' have genetic mutations associated with temperature-sensitive pigment production. Pigment production is reduced in warmer areas of the body, leading to darker pigmentation in the cat's cooler extremities (paws, ears, etc.)

Cone Degeneration

Loss of cone function due to cone degeneration results in day-blindness and decreased visual acuity. There are 2 known mutations of the CNGB3 gene that cause canine cone degeneration day-blindness in dogs.

Cone Rod Dystrophy 1 and 2

Cone Rod Dystrophy 1 and 2 cause early onset retinal degeneration leading to blindness in the American Staffordshire Terrier and American Pit Bull Terrier.

Congenital Ichthyosis in Golden Retrievers

Congenital ichthyosis is a skin condition in which the outer layer of the skin does not form properly and results in scaling. The condition often progresses to large patches of thickened, black, scaly skin.

Cornish Rex Coat

Cornish Rex cats have short, soft, curly coats inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. This trait is fixed in the breed.

Coyote-Dog Hybrid Test

Coyote-dog hybrids, or coydogs, are produced by crossing coyotes with dogs. The VGL coyote-hybrid test consists of 2-4 types of assays (depending on whether animals are female or male) and analyses designed to detect recent coyote input in a dog’s genetic lineage (1-2 generations back).

Cream

Cream is a dilution that causes the palomino, buckskin, smoky black, cremello, perlino, and smoky cream coat colors.

Curl

A variant in the Keratin-71 gene is associated with curly hair in dogs. Dogs with the curl variant have curly coats or wavy coats depending on how many copies of the variant they possess.

Cystinuria Type I-A in Labrador Retrievers

Cystinuria type I-A is a kidney disorder in which the kidneys are unable to reabsorb cystine, leading to the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which can cause urinary obstruction, difficulty in passing urine, and presence of blood in the urine.

Deafness with Vestibular Dysfunction (DVD), aka DINGS

In Doberman Pinschers, a neurological disorder causing deafness and balance/coordination issues, commonly referred to as DINGS, is associated with variants in two different genes. One appears to result in deafness in one ear while the other shows deafness in both ears.

Deer and Elk Abundance and Sex Ratio

We provide a range of services based on fecal pellets from deer or other ruminants provided to us, including individual genotyping with 10-12 microsatellite markers and an SRY marker to determine sex as well as species-typing based on mitochondrial sequencing (i.e., only necessary when species or origin is ambiguous).  Analysis of genotypic data to produce abundance estimates also can be arranged.

Deer and Elk Abundance and Sex Ratio

We provide a range of services based on fecal pellets from deer or other ruminants provided to us, including individual genotyping with 10-12 microsatellite markers and an SRY marker to determine sex as well as species-typing based on mitochondrial sequencing (i.e., only necessary when species or origin is ambiguous).  Analysis of genotypic data to produce abundance estimates also can be arranged.

Deer and Elk Abundance and Sex Ratio

We provide a range of services based on fecal pellets from deer or other ruminants provided to us, including individual genotyping with 10-12 microsatellite markers and an SRY marker to determine sex as well as species-typing based on mitochondrial sequencing (i.e., only necessary when species or origin is ambiguous).  Analysis of genotypic data to produce abundance estimates also can be arranged.

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM)

Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an inherited neurologic disorder of dogs characterized by gradual muscle wasting and loss of coordination typically beginning in the hind limbs.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1 and 2 in Doberman Pinschers

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart has a decreased ability to pump blood. Two mutations associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers have been identified. Testing for these mutations can identify individuals at risk for developing clinical symptoms of disease.

Dilute

Dilute is an autosomal recessive trait that causes clumping and uneven distribution of pigment granules in the hair shaft, producing dilution of all coat colors.

Dilute (D Locus/Blue)

Several gene variants are known to produce dilute coloration in dogs. Colors are lightened (diluted) to paler shades as a result of the variants' effects on pigmentation.

Distichiasis

Distichiasis is a condition in which the eyelashes grow from an abnormal position on the edges of the eyelids. These misplaced lashes can contact the cornea (clear ‘window’ of the front of the eye), leading to irritation and corneal ulcers, which can impact vision.

Dominant Black (K Locus)

The Dominant Black gene (K Locus) affects pigment switching between eumelanin (black) and phaeomelanin (red or yellow) by interacting with the Agouti and MC1R genes.

Dominant Red (Variant Red) in Holsteins

Holsteins with the Dominant Red variant have red and white coats inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The gene underlying this coloration is independent from the other major gene (MC1R) that controls black and red color in Holstein cattle.

Dominant White and White Spotting

White spotting patterns occur in many donkey breeds and are similar to those of horses in that the amount of white can range from a few white hairs to an animal that is almost completely white.

Dominant White Mutations – W5, W10, W20, and W22

Dominant white is a variable white spotting pattern caused by many different mutations in the KIT gene. The VGL tests for the four most common mutations known as W5, W10, W20, and W22. Homozygosity for W5, W10, or W22 is thought to be non-viable.

Dun Color in Dexters

The dun coloration in Dexter cattle is caused by the dilution of black pigment in the hair, producing shades of dark brown to gold. This color dilution is caused by a recessive mutation.

Dun Dilution

Dun is a coat color dilution characterized by lightening of the coat, with the head, lower legs, mane, and tail undiluted. Oftentimes, dun is also characterized by "primitive markings" such as a dark dorsal stripe, barring of the legs, shoulder stripes, and "cobwebbing" on the forehead.

Equine Familial Isolated Hypoparathyroidism (EFIH)

Equine familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (EFIH), previously termed idiopathic hypocalcemia, is an invariably fatal condition that causes involuntary contraction of muscles and seizures in Thoroughbred foals.

Exercise-Induced Collapse (EIC)

Exercise-induced collapse is a genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness, lack of coordination, and life-threatening collapse after intense exercise in otherwise apparently healthy dogs.

Factor VII Deficiency

Factor VII deficiency is a mild to moderate inherited blood clotting disorder. Affected dogs may appear mostly healthy but may be prone to increased bleeding tendency.

Freemartin

A freemartin is a female that shares placental vascular connections with a male twin during fetal development and is sterile as a result of in utero exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male.

Freemartin

A freemartin is defined as a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones.

Freemartin

A freemartin is defined as a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones.

Freemartin

A freemartin is defined as a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male.

Freemartin

A freemartin is a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male in utero.

Friesian Horse Dwarfism

Dwarfism in Friesians is an inherited disorder characterized by a disproportionate growth with reduced bone length of limbs and ribs while the size of the head and length of the back are normal.

Friesian Horse Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is an inherited condition in Friesian and Friesian crosses characterized by excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain that results in severe cranial distension.

Furnishings and Improper Coat

A dominant variant of the R-spondin-2 gene produces the longer mustache and eyebrows seen in wire-haired dogs and other breeds.

G6-Sulfatase Deficiency (G6-S MPSIIID)

G6-Sulfatase deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive metabolic defect that occurs in Nubian goats and related crosses. Affected goats exhibit delayed motor development, growth retardation, and early death.

Gloves (Birman – White Feet)

Birman cats have clearly defined white feet ("gloves") as part of their breed standard. This characteristic gloving is caused by a variant in the KIT gene and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

GM1 Gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu

GM1 gangliosidosis in the Shiba Inu breed (SI-GM1) is a progressive, lethal disorder caused by abnormal accumulation of a fatty molecule important for normal functioning of nerve cells in the brain.

GM2 Gangliosidosis in Burmese

GM2 gangliosidosis is a degenerative, fatal neurological disease characterized by severe muscle tremors and loss of motor control.

Goat Scrapie Susceptibility

Scrapie is a fatal, infectious neurodegenerative prion disease that affects sheep and goats. Natural mutations in the prion protein gene of sheep and goats have been identified which confer susceptibility or resistance to scrapie.

Gray

The gray gene causes progressive depigmentation of the hair, often resulting in a color that is almost completely white by 6-8 years of age.

Hairlessness in Terriers

The American Hairless Terrier is a breed that includes hairless and coated varieties. The breed's characteristic hairlessness is inherited as a recessive trait.

Harlequin Pattern in Great Danes

Harlequin is a pattern seen in Great Danes resulting from the complex interaction of the Merle and Harlequin genes on black pigment.

Hereditary Cataracts (HC) in Australian Shepherds

Cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye) are a common cause of blindness in dogs. In Australian Shepherds, a genetic mutation causes hereditary cataracts, which may start forming after 2 years of age and show variable rate of progression and vision impairment.

Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia (HERDA)

Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an inherited skin condition primarily found in Quarter Horses that is characterized by hyperextensible skin, scarring, and severe lesions along the back of affected horses.

Hereditary Nasal Parakeratosis (HNPK)

Hereditary nasal parakeratosis is an inherited, recessive genetic defect that affects specialized cells of the canine nose, resulting in the formation of a crust with cracks over the nasal area of young dogs.

Horse Embryo Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used to screen embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine sex and genetic traits through DNA testing prior to implantation in the uterus.

Hybridization

This test detects DNA markers that discriminate between bison and cattle.

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP)

Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is an inherited disease of the muscles primarily found in Quarter Horses which is characterized by sporadic episodes of muscle tremors or paralysis.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) in Ragdolls

Cats affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are at risk of sudden cardiac death. In Ragdoll cats, a breed-specific mutation has been found to be associated with increased risk for HCM.

Hyperuricosuria (HUU)

Hyperuricosuria is an inherited disorder characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in the urine that can lead to the formation of bladder/kidney stones.

Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS)

Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) is a disorder found in Beagles and Border Collies where vitamin B12 is unable to be absorbed through the gut.

Immune-Mediated Myositis (IMM/MYH1)

Immune-mediated myositis (IMM) is an autoimmune muscle disease that can result in severe atrophy and extreme muscle loss. The genetic susceptibility to this condition is found in quarter horses and quarter horse-related breeds.

Intensity Dilution

The intensity coat color gene variant causes an extreme dilution of phaeomelanin (red or yellow pigment), resulting in a cream to white coat in dogs.

Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB1) in Belgians

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is an inherited disease that causes moderate to severe blistering of the skin and mouth epithelia, sloughing of hooves in newborn foals, and skin lesions that develop as the foal ages. This test detects a causal variant specific to Belgians and related breeds.

Juvenile Hereditary Cataract (JHC)

Juvenile hereditary cataracts are an inherited form of cataracts that commonly cause blindness in dogs by clouding the lens of the eye and affecting both eyes symmetrically.

Kappa-casein

Kappa-casein is an important gene for protein yield and percentage in milk. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of kappa-casein protein in cow's milk.

Korat GM1 Gangliosidosis

Korat GM1 gangliosidosis causes progressive neurologic dysfunction and premature death in Korat cats.

Korat GM2 Gangliosidosis

Korat GM2 gangliosidosis causes progressive neurologic dysfunction and premature death in Korat cats. Disease progression is more rapid in GM2 than GM1.

Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS)

Lavender foal syndrome (LFS) is an inherited lethal coat color dilution found primarily in Arabian horses that is characterized by a dilute lavender, pale pink, or silver coat accompanied by severe neurological abnormalities.

Leopard Complex & Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

Leopard complex or appaloosa spotting is a white pattern in horses characterized by a variable amounts of white in the coat with or without pigmented leopard spots. Horses homozygous for this variant have an ocular condition known as congenital stationary night blindness.

Lethal White Overo (LWO)

Lethal white overo (LWO) is a genetic disorder that results from two copies of the version of the gene causing the frame overo coat color pattern.

Long Hair

Long-haired donkeys produce thick, shaggy coats. Two allele variants inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion have been identified as causing this phenotype.

Long Hair

Four mutations that produce long-haired coats in domestic cats have been identified in a single gene. Three of the mutations are fairly breed specific, while the fourth is present in all long-haired cat breeds and crossbreds.

Malignant Hyperthermia (MH)

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited disease in which affected horses can be triggered by halogenated anesthetics, succinylcholine, stress, or excitement, which can induce a hyper-metabolic state characterized by symptoms including muscle contracture, elevated temperature, and an irregular heart rhythm.

MC1R (Extension) - Red/Black

The Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene (also called Extension) controls the production of black and red pigments in the coats of domestic cattle, creating base colors that may then be further modified by other genes.

MC1R including Black/Red (Telstar) in Holsteins

The Melanocortin-1 Receptor gene (MC1R), also called Extension (E), controls black and red pigment production in cattle. In Holsteins, there are four known variants including Black/Red (Telstar).

MC1R including Mask, Grizzle, and Red/Cream (E Locus)

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene controls production of the pigments eumelanin (black) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow). Six known variants of this gene are responsible for producing markings and coat colors including melanistic mask, grizzle/domino, black, and shades of red/yellow.

Merle

Merle is an incompletely dominant coat color pattern characterized by irregularly shaped patches of diluted pigment and solid color.

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI)

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that has mild and severe forms. Signs may include retarded growth, wide faces with shortened noses, reduced flexibility, and degenerative joint disease.

Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA)

Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) is an inherited eye disorder that is associated with the silver dilution and is characterized by ocular cysts, enlargement of the cornea, abnormally formed iris/retina, and additional abnormalities.

Mushroom

Mushroom is a dilute coat color found in Shetland Ponies that results in a distinctive “sepia” toned coat, often accompanied by a flaxen mane and tail.

Naked Foal Syndrome in Akhal-Teke

Naked foal syndrome (NFS) is an inherited disorder found in the Akhal-Teke breed and is characterized by hairlessness, abnormal teeth development, digestive disorders, persistent diarrhea, and laminitis-like problems.

Narcolepsy in Doberman Pinschers

Narcolepsy is a disorder of the nervous system characterized by periods of sleepiness. This test detects a causal variant specific to Doberman Pinschers.

Narcolepsy in Labrador Retrievers

Narcolepsy in Labrador Retrievers is a sleeping disorder characterized by daytime sleepiness, fragmented sleep patterns, and sudden transient episodes of muscle weakness or paralysis triggered by play or food. This test detects a causal variant specific to Labrador Retrievers.

Natural Bobtail

Natural bobtail is a naturally occurring mutation in the T-box gene resulting in a shortened tail.

Neonatal Encephalopathy with Seizures (NEWS)

Neonatal encephalopathy with seizures is an inherited progressive brain disease of Standard Poodles and related crosses that is characterized by weakness, mobility issues, and seizures. Affected pups do not survive beyond seven weeks of age.

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL) in Golden Retrievers

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis results from the accumulation of granules in the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. This progressive neurological disorder manifests as behavioral changes coupled with a loss of coordination and blindness.

No Light Points

Donkeys in several breeds have darker pigment around the muzzle, eye rings, belly, and upper and inner aspects of the legs and are described as having no light points (NLP).

Occipitoatlantoaxial Malformation (OAAM)

Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM), an inherited developmental condition primarily found in Arabian horses, causes abnormal development of the vertebrae and results in compression of the upper cervical cord with subsequent neurological damage.

Osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) in Miniature Poodles

Osteochondrodysplasia is characterized by stunted growth and abnormal locomotion. Affected animals develop splayed hind limbs, enlarged joints, flattened rib cages, shortened and bent long bones, and deformed paws.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents.

Paunch Calf Syndrome (PCS) in Romagnola Cattle

Paunch calf syndrome (PCS) is an inherited lethal defect of Romagnola cattle characterized by abnormal development of multiple organs, craniofacial deformities, an enlarged fluid-filled abdomen, and liver fibrosis. Affected calves are usually stillborn.

Pearl

Pearl is a coat color dilution that is characterized by a dilution of the coat, mane, and tail as well as a lightening of the skin.

Piebald/White Spotting (S Locus)

White spotting patterns that occur in many dog breeds do not have a uniform genetic basis, and the genetics are complex. In piebald/parti/random white spotting, the extent of white pattern expression varies, and markings are often asymmetrical.

Polled vs. Horned

Polled cattle breeds have been selectively bred to lack horns. Polledness is a dominant trait: all offspring of a bull with 2 copies of a polled-associated mutation will be polled themselves.

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD1)

Feline polycystic kidney disease (PKD1) is a heritable form of polycystic kidney disease commonly seen in Persians and cats with Persian ancestry. Affected cats develop cysts on their kidneys, which often leads to renal failure at a later stage.

Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM1)

Type 1 Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy is a glycogen storage disease that results in the accumulation of abnormal complex sugars in muscle cells, which can lead to muscle pain, weakness, and reluctance to move.

Primary Lens Luxation (PLL)

Primary lens luxation is a painful inherited eye disorder where the lens of the eye moves from its normal position, causing inflammation and glaucoma. If untreated, the condition can rapidly lead to blindness.

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) in Beagles

This inherited primary open angle glaucoma in Beagles results from a mutation in the gene ADAMTS10. The condition is characterized by increased pressure in the eye; nerve damage, vision loss, lens subluxation, and blindness may result.

Progressive Ataxia in Charolais Cattle

Progressive ataxia (PA) of Charolais cattle is an inherited neurodegenerative disease affecting the hind limbs that can gradually progress until the affected animal is unable to stand.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA rdAc) (Abyssinian)

This progressive retinal atrophy is an inherited late-onset blindness condition seen in Abyssinian, Somali, and some Ocicat and other breeds. Affected cats have normal vision at birth that slowly degenerates to blindness.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA Rdy) (Abyssinian)

This progressive retinal atrophy is an inherited, rare form of early-onset blindness seen in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Affected cats have retarded development and degeneration of photoreceptor cells, which leads to blindness by 7 weeks of age.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) in Irish Setters

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is characterized by degeneration of the retina resulting in progressive vision loss leading to total blindness. In Irish Setters and Irish Red and White Setters, dogs with this disease are typically completely blind before two years of age.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA1 and PRA2) in Golden Retrievers

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is characterized by bilateral degeneration of the retina resulting in progressive vision loss leading to total blindness. More than one form of PRA affects Golden Retrievers, and causal mutations in three distinct genes have been identified; two of those mutations lead to PRA1 and PRA2.

Pulmonary Hypoplasia with Anasarca (PHA) in Dexters

Pulmonary hypoplasia with anasarca (PHA) is a lethal genetic defect characterized by incomplete development of the lungs and severe subcutaneous fluid accumulation, leading to abortion or the birth of a dead calf.

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKDef)

Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKDef) is an inherited hemolytic anemia caused by a defect in the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Signs in affected dogs may include lack of energy and fatigue in dogs that appear otherwise fit.

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKDef) in Labrador Retrievers

Pyruvate kinase deficiency in Labrador Retrievers is a chronic, severe hemolytic anemia caused by defective production of the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Signs in affected dogs may include lethargy, low exercise tolerance, and fatigue.

Red Factor

The extension gene, or red factor, determines whether a horse will have a chestnut base coat color or a black or bay base coat color.

Red Factor (Extension)

The mutation causing red body and red trim (called sorrel, chestnut, or red) in donkeys has been identified in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. 

Roan Zygosity Test

Roan is a white patterning coat color trait characterized by intermixed white and colored hairs in the body while the head, lower legs, mane, and tail remain colored.

Sabino 1

Sabino is a white spotting pattern that is characterized by white markings on legs often accompanied by white ticking or roaning of the midsection and a blaze on the face.

Scottish Fold

The Scottish Fold breed produces cats with both straight and folded ears. A single copy of the fold mutation produces the breed's characteristic folded ears, and cats with two copies are prone to more extreme health problems affecting cartilage and bone.

Selkirk Rex Coat

The Selkirk Rex breed has curled hair that can be short or long. A single copy of the variant that causes the Selkirk Rex coat produces wavy hair, and two copies produce a tighter curl as well as a slender body type with long ears.

Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy (SAN) in Golden Retrievers

Sensory ataxic neuropathy is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle movements and abnormal posture resulting from degeneration of the nerves controlling muscle movement. It affects both sexes but is only inherited maternally.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), an inherited condition primarily affecting Arabians, is characterized by an underdeveloped immune system that results in foals with elevated temperatures, respiratory stress, and diarrhea.

Silver

The silver dilution dilutes black/brown pigment to lighten the manes and tails of black and bay horses to a flaxen or silver gray. The silver dilution is also associated with an inherited ocular syndrome known as Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA).

Skeletal Atavism

Skeletal atavism, an inherited bone development disorder found in Miniature Horses and Shetland Ponies, is characterized by severe angle anomalies and deformation of the front knee and hock. Affected horses typically display short legs, clubfootedness, and impaired movement.

Sphynx and Devon Rex Coats

The Devon Rex breed produces a curly coat and the Sphynx breed is nearly hairless. The nearly hairless coat of the Sphynx breed is recessive to normal coat, and the curly coat of the Devon Rex breed is recessive to the hairless Sphynx coat.

Spider Lamb Syndrome

Ovine hereditary chondrodysplasia (spider lamb syndrome) is a semi-lethal inherited disorder associated with skeletal deformities in young sheep.

Spinal Dysraphism (SD) in Weimaraners

Spinal dysraphism (SD) in Weimaraner dogs is a genetic disorder present at birth that results from faulty embryonic development, leading to an abnormal gait as well as weakness and lack of coordination in the rear legs.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) in Maine Coon Cats

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive instability with unsteady gait and posture abnormalities due to loss of motor neurons in the lower spinal cord and atrophy of muscles in the hind limbs.

Splashed White Mutations – SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5, and SW6

Splashed white is a variable white spotting pattern characterized by a broad blaze, extended white markings on the legs, variable white spotting on the belly, and often blue eyes. Six mutations in two different genes have been shown to cause the splashed white pattern.

Susceptibility to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE)

Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis, is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Several genetic markers are associated with risk of developing NME.

SynchroGait®

SynchroGait® is a diagnostic DNA test for a genetic variant (A) that has a major impact on the gait and coordination of horses. The discovery by researchers in Sweden showed that the mutation “facilitates lateral gaits, ambling and pace, and inhibits the transition from trot or pace to gallop”. The gait A variant has been identified as a major genetic factor for performance in trotting horses and ability to perform the additional “flying pace” in Icelandic horses. 

Tiger Eye

Tiger eye is a dilute iris color characterized by a yellow, amber, or bright orange color.

Tobiano

Tobiano is a white spotting pattern characterized by white on the body that crosses the topline.

Von Willebrand Disease I (vWD Type 1)

Von Willebrand disease I (vWD Type 1), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma.

Von Willebrand Disease II (vWD Type 2)

Von Willebrand disease II (vWD Type 2), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma. vWD Type 2 is rare.

Von Willebrand Disease III (vWD Type 3)

Von Willebrand disease III (vWD Type 3), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma. vWD Type 3 is the most severe form.

Warmblood Fragile Foal Syndrome (WFFS) Type I

Warmblood fragile foal syndrome (WFFS) type I is a recessive inherited connective tissue defect characterized by hyperextensible joints and abnormally thin fragile skin and mucous membranes.

Wolf-Dog Hybrid Test

Wolf-dog hybrids have been produced by crossing wolves with wolf-like dog breeds. The VGL wolf-hybrid test consists of 3-4 types of assays (depending on whether animals are female or male) and analyses and is powerful enough to detect hybrids within 3 generations.