Adverse owner-reported behaviors (such as seizure, “glazing over”, episodic biting, and general loss of clarity) in the Belgian Malinois have been associated with certain genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene.
The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers that will determine genetic diversity across the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions. This test panel is useful to breeders who wish to track and increase genetic diversity of their breed as a long term goal. Please note, this test will not identify breed.
Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, Type III (CLAD-Type III) is an inherited blood disorder affecting German Shepherd Dogs. It is characterized by abnormal blood clotting and immune system functions.
Canine multifocal retinopathy 2 is an inherited eye disease characterized by areas of retinal detachment. The disease does not typically lead to blindness or vision deficits. The CMR2 mutation is associated with the Coton de Tulear breed.
Canine multifocal retinopathy 3 is an inherited eye disease characterized by areas of retinal detachment. The disease does not typically lead to blindness or vision deficits. The CMR3 mutation is associated with the Finnish Lapphund, Lapponian Herder, and Swedish Lapphund breeds.
Chondrodysplasia is a short-legged phenotype characteristic of many dog breeds. Chondrodystrophy, a separate mutation, also includes a short-legged phenotype as well as susceptibility to intervertebral disc disease.
Loss of cone function due to cone degeneration results in day-blindness and decreased visual acuity. There are 2 known mutations of the CNGB3 gene that cause canine cone degeneration day-blindness in dogs.
Congenital ichthyosis is a skin condition in which the outer layer of the skin does not form properly and results in scaling. The condition often progresses to large patches of thickened, black, scaly skin.
Cystinuria type I-A is a kidney disorder in which the kidneys are unable to reabsorb cystine, leading to the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which can cause urinary obstruction, difficulty in passing urine, and presence of blood in the urine.
In Doberman Pinschers, a neurological disorder causing deafness and balance/coordination issues, commonly referred to as DINGS, is associated with variants in two different genes. One appears to result in deafness in one ear while the other shows deafness in both ears.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart has a decreased ability to pump blood. Two mutations associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers have been identified. Testing for these mutations can identify individuals at risk for developing clinical symptoms of disease.
Exercise-induced collapse is a genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness, lack of coordination, and life-threatening collapse after intense exercise in otherwise apparently healthy dogs.
Hemophilia A/Factor VIII Deficiency is an inherited bleeding disorder in German Shepherd Dogs and related breeds caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII (F8), a protein necessary for blood clotting.
Cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye) are a common cause of blindness in dogs. In Australian Shepherds, a genetic mutation causes hereditary cataracts, which may start forming after 2 years of age and show variable rate of progression and vision impairment.
Hereditary nasal parakeratosis is an inherited, recessive genetic defect that affects specialized cells of the canine nose, resulting in the formation of a crust with cracks over the nasal area of young dogs.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene controls production of the pigments eumelanin (black) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow). Six known variants of this gene are responsible for producing markings and coat colors including melanistic mask, grizzle/domino, black, and shades of red/yellow.
Narcolepsy in Labrador Retrievers is a sleeping disorder characterized by daytime sleepiness, fragmented sleep patterns, and sudden transient episodes of muscle weakness or paralysis triggered by play or food. This test detects a causal variant specific to Labrador Retrievers.
Neonatal encephalopathy with seizures is an inherited progressive brain disease of Standard Poodles and related crosses that is characterized by weakness, mobility issues, and seizures. Affected pups do not survive beyond seven weeks of age.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis results from the accumulation of granules in the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. This progressive neurological disorder manifests as behavioral changes coupled with a loss of coordination and blindness.
Osteochondrodysplasia is characterized by stunted growth and abnormal locomotion. Affected animals develop splayed hind limbs, enlarged joints, flattened rib cages, shortened and bent long bones, and deformed paws.
White spotting patterns that occur in many dog breeds do not have a uniform genetic basis, and the genetics are complex. In piebald/parti/random white spotting, the extent of white pattern expression varies, and markings are often asymmetrical.
Primary lens luxation is a painful inherited eye disorder where the lens of the eye moves from its normal position, causing inflammation and glaucoma. If untreated, the condition can rapidly lead to blindness.
This inherited primary open angle glaucoma in Beagles results from a mutation in the gene ADAMTS10. The condition is characterized by increased pressure in the eye; nerve damage, vision loss, lens subluxation, and blindness may result.
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is characterized by degeneration of the retina resulting in progressive vision loss leading to total blindness. In Irish Setters and Irish Red and White Setters, dogs with this disease are typically completely blind before two years of age.
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is characterized by bilateral degeneration of the retina resulting in progressive vision loss leading to total blindness. More than one form of PRA affects Golden Retrievers, and causal mutations in three distinct genes have been identified; two of those mutations lead to PRA1 and PRA2.
Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKDef) is an inherited hemolytic anemia caused by a defect in the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Signs in affected dogs may include lack of energy and fatigue in dogs that appear otherwise fit.
Pyruvate kinase deficiency in Labrador Retrievers is a chronic, severe hemolytic anemia caused by defective production of the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Signs in affected dogs may include lethargy, low exercise tolerance, and fatigue.
Sensory ataxic neuropathy is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle movements and abnormal posture resulting from degeneration of the nerves controlling muscle movement. It affects both sexes but is only inherited maternally.
Spinal dysraphism (SD) in Weimaraner dogs is a genetic disorder present at birth that results from faulty embryonic development, leading to an abnormal gait as well as weakness and lack of coordination in the rear legs.
Stargardt disease is a degenerative eye disorder resulting from the progressive loss of the photoreceptor cells that are responsible for sensing light. Affected dogs show a decline in vision with age but appear to retain some vision throughout their life.
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration that leads to blindness. Mutations in 5 loci are associated with susceptibility to 90% of the PRA in Italian Greyhounds.
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis, is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Several genetic markers are associated with risk of developing NME.
Von Willebrand disease I (vWD Type 1), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma.
Von Willebrand disease II (vWD Type 2), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma. vWD Type 2 is rare.
Von Willebrand disease III (vWD Type 3), an inherited bleeding disorder, results from a lack or reduced level of a normal blood clotting protein and is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhaging and prolonged bleeding after physical trauma. vWD Type 3 is the most severe form.