Shorthorn

Cattle Milk Protein Panel

Milk

This panel includes all three available tests for milk protein: beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.

Beta-lactoglobulin

Beta-lactoglobulin is the major whey protein gene. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin protein in cow's milk.

Kappa-casein

Kappa-casein is an important gene for protein yield and percentage in milk. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of kappa-casein protein in cow's milk.

Beta-casein (A2 Genotyping)

Genetic variants of beta-casein, a protein of cow's milk, can be classified into two groups, A1 and A2, based on the specific amino acid in position 67 of the protein. This A1/A2 group designation may be of interest to breeders developing herds for human health benefits.

MC1R (Extension) - Red/Black

The Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene (also called Extension) controls the production of black and red pigments in the coats of domestic cattle, creating base colors that may then be further modified by other genes.

Freemartin

A freemartin is a female that is born as a twin with a male and is sterile as a result of exposure to masculinizing hormones produced by the male in utero.

Polled vs. Horned

Polled cattle breeds have been selectively bred to lack horns. Polledness is a dominant trait: all offspring of a bull with 2 copies of a polled-associated mutation will be polled themselves.