Genetic Diversity Testing for Llewellin Setters


The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers to determine genetic heterogeneity and diversity across the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions for specified dog populations. This test panel is useful to dog breeders who wish to use DNA-based testing to track and distribute genetic diversity as a supplement to in-depth pedigrees. Information on genetic heterogeneity and diversity, along with DNA testing results for desired phenotypes and health traits, can aid in informing breeding decisions in order to improve the overall genetic health of a breed.

Genetic diversity testing in the Llewellin Setter has been established, and almost all existing alleles at the 33 STR loci and 7 DLA class I and II regions have potentially been identified. As of October of 2022, 135 Llewellin Setters from the United States were tested to assess genetic diversity in the breed. Allele and DLA haplotype frequencies will be updated as more dogs are tested.


$80 one test per animal


Results reported as:

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci: A total of 33 STR loci from different regions of the genome were used to assess genetic heterogeneity and existing genetic diversity within an individual as well as across the breed. The alleles inherited from each parent are displayed graphically to highlight heterozygosity and genetic diversity in individuals as well as breed-wide.

DLA haplotypes: Seven STR loci linked to DLA class I and II genes were used to assess genetic diversity within a region that regulates immune responses and self/non-self-recognition. Problems with self/non-self-recognition, along with environmental factors, are responsible for autoimmune disease, allergies, and susceptibility to infectious agents.

Internal Relatedness (IR): The IR value is a measure of the genetic relatedness of an individual's parents. The value takes into consideration both heterozygosity of alleles at each STR loci and their relative frequency in the population. Therefore, IR values heterozygosity over homozygosity and uncommon alleles over common alleles. IR values are unique to each dog; two individuals from different sources may have identical IR values, but a quite different genetic makeup.


Report issued Oct 31, 2022. Daily updated statistics are here.

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