This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.
The Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene (also called Extension) controls the production of black and red pigments in the coats of domestic cattle, creating base colors that may then be further modified by other genes.
Pulmonary hypoplasia with anasarca (PHA) is a lethal genetic defect characterized by incomplete development of the lungs and severe subcutaneous fluid accumulation, leading to abortion or the birth of a dead calf.