Genetic Diversity Testing for Lakeland Terriers


The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff,
has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers to determine genetic heterogeneity
and diversity across the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions
for specified dog populations. This test panel is useful to dog breeders who wish to use DNA-
based testing to track and distribute genetic diversity as a supplement to in-depth pedigrees.
Information on genetic heterogeneity and diversity, along with DNA testing results for desired
phenotypes and health traits, can aid in informing breeding decisions in order to improve the
overall genetic health of a breed.

Genetic diversity testing in the Lakeland Terrier has been established, and almost all existing
alleles at the 33 STR loci and 7 DLA class I and II regions have potentially been identified. As of
October of 2023, 137 dogs from the United States (n=127) and Canada (n=10) were tested to assess
genetic diversity in the breed. Allele and DLA haplotype frequencies will be updated as more dogs
are tested.


$85 one test per animal
$70 when combined with a diagnostic test


Results reported as:

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci: A total of 33 STR loci from 25/38 autosomes were used to gauge genetic heterogeneity and diversity within an individual and across the breed. Many of the STRs in this panel have been validated for universal parentage determination for domestic dogs by the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) and others developed by the VGL for forensic purposes. STR loci are highly polymorphic and have great power to determine genetic differences among individuals and breeds.

DLA haplotypes: STR loci linked to the DLA class I and II genes were used to identify genetic differences in regions regulating immune responses and self/non-self-recognition. Problems with self/non-self-recognition, along with non-genetic factors in the environment, are responsible for autoimmune, autoinflammatory and allergic disease.

Internal Relatedness: The IR value is a measure of the genetic relatedness of an individual's parents. The value takes into consideration both heterozygosity of alleles at each STR loci and their relative frequency in the population. Therefore, IR values heterozygosity over homozygosity and uncommon alleles over common alleles. IR values are unique to each dog and two individuals from different sources may have identical IR values but a very different genetic makeup.


Report issued November 3, 2023. Daily updated statistics are here.

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