Genetic Diversity Testing for Lakeland Terriers


The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers that will measure genetic heterogeneity and diversity across the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions for specified dog populations. This test panel will be useful to dog breeders who wish to use DNA-based testing as a supplement to in-depth pedigrees.

DNA-based testing of the Lakeland Terrier from the US and Canada is now in the preliminary results phase with the objective of building a snap-shot of individual- and breed-wide genetic heterogeneity and diversity. This data base will be progressively expanded as more dogs are added with the goal of identifying all the known alleles for the breed at 33 STR loci as well as all existing DLA class I and II haplotypes. We are accepting Lakeland Terriers from all parts of the world with a goal of at least 100-150 individuals.

The 48 Lakeland Terriers in this study were exclusively from North America, with eight from Canada and 40 from the US. The dogs were from 11 different owners/breeders. These 48 initial dogs may not identify all the genetic diversity that exists in the breed or accurately portray relatedness between individual or population heterogeneity. However, based on work with other breeds, these 48 dogs will identify all major STR alleles and DLA class I and II haplotypes, and any additional types are likely of low incidence.


$50 one test per animal
This is the cost for the dogs that will be tested in the research phase. Once the research phase is complete, the test will be offered at the regular rate of $80.


Results reported as:

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci: A total of 33 STR loci from 25/38 autosomes were used to gauge genetic heterogeneity and diversity within an individual and across the breed. Many of the STRs in this panel have been validated for universal parentage determination for domestic dogs by the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) and others developed by the VGL for forensic purposes. STR loci are highly polymorphic and have great power to determine genetic differences among individuals and breeds.

DLA haplotypes: STR loci linked to the DLA class I and II genes were used to identify genetic differences in regions regulating immune responses and self/non-self-recognition. Problems with self/non-self-recognition, along with non-genetic factors in the environment, are responsible for autoimmune, autoinflammatory and allergic disease.

Internal Relatedness: The IR value is a measure of the genetic relatedness of an individual's parents. The value takes into consideration both heterozygosity of alleles at each STR loci and their relative frequency in the population. Therefore, IR values heterozygosity over homozygosity and uncommon alleles over common alleles. IR values are unique to each dog and two individuals from different sources may have identical IR values but a very different genetic makeup.


Report issued January 14, 2019. Daily updated statistics are here.

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