Genetic Diversity Testing for Miniature Poodles


The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers that will determine genetic diversity within the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions. This test panel will be useful to Miniature Poodle breeders who wish to determine the amount of genetic diversity that exists in the breed and to compare that diversity with that of Standard Poodles.

Breeders and owners have submitted enough DNA samples from as many as 242 Miniature Poodles to create an accurate and complete baseline for genetic diversity in the breed. However, given the high amount of genetic diversity that has been determined so far, it is possible that even more diversity still exists. However, the incidence of new autosomal STR alleles and DLA class I and II haplotypes will probably be very low, and if identified, will be added to the current tables and figures.


$85 one test per animal

$70 when combined with a diagnostic test


Results reported as:

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci: A total of 33 STR loci from across 25 of 39 (panel 1) or 58 of 39 (panel 2) chromosomes were used to gauge genetic diversity within an individual and across the breed. The alleles inherited from each parent are displayed graphically to highlight heterozygosity, and breed-wide allele frequency is provided.

DLA haplotypes: Seven additional STR loci linked to the DLA class I and II genes were used to identify genetic differences in regions regulating immune responses and self/non-self recognition. Problems with self/non-self recognition, along with non-genetic factors in the environment, are responsible for autoimmune disease.

Internal Relatedness: The IR value is a measure of genetic diversity within an individual that takes into consideration both heterozygosity of alleles at each STR loci and their relative frequency in the population. Therefore, IR values heterozygosity over homozygosity and uncommon alleles over common alleles. IR values are unique to each dog and cannot be compared between dogs. Two dogs may have identical IR values but with very different genetic makeups. IR values can be adjusted using data from highly random bred village dogs from across the Middle East, SE Asia and Island Pacific nations. Adjusted IR values, known as IRVD, are estimates of the amount of genetic diversity that has been lost over the entire period of breed evolution from when breed ancestors left this region thousands of years ago, over the several hundred years during which the proto-breed (Poodles) evolved.

Daily updated statistics are here.

See our PDF