Genetic Diversity Testing for Toy Poodles


The Veterinary Genetics Laboratory (VGL), in collaboration with Dr. Niels C. Pedersen and staff, has developed a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) markers that will determine genetic diversity within the genome and in the Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA) class I and II regions. This test panel will be useful to Toy Poodle breeders who wish to determine the amount of genetic diversity that exists in their dogs and to compare diversity with Miniature and Standard Poodles. DLA class I and II haplotypes also provide information on breed founders and relationships within varieties and across breeds.

Breeders and owners have submitted enough DNA samples from 102 Toy Poodles to date. This is sufficient to create an accurate baseline for genetic diversity in the breed. It is possible that additional diversity will be found as more dogs are tested. However, new autosomal STR alleles and DLA class I and II haplotypes will probably be few and their incidence low. The current tables and figures will be updated as more dogs are tested.


$80 one test per animal
$70 when combined with a diagnostic test


Results reported as:

Short tandem repeat (STR) loci: A total of 33 STR loci from across 25 of 39 chromosomes were used to gauge genetic diversity within an individual and across the breed. The alleles inherited from each parent are displayed graphically to highlight heterozygosity.

DLA haplotypes: Seven additional STR loci linked to the DLA class I and II genes were used to identify genetic differences in regions regulating immune responses and self/non-self-recognition. Problems with self/non-self-recognition, along with non-genetic factors in the environment, are responsible for autoimmune disease, allergies and reduced resistance to certain infections.

Internal Relatedness: The IR value is a measure of genetic diversity within an individual that takes into consideration both heterozygosity of alleles at each STR loci and their relative frequency in the population. Therefore, IR values heterozygosity over homozygosity and uncommon alleles over common alleles. IR values are unique to each dog and cannot be compared between dogs. Two dogs may have identical IR values but with very different genetic makeups. IR values can be adjusted using data from highly random bred village dogs from across the Middle East, SE Asia and Island Pacific nations. Adjusted IR values, known as IRVD, are estimates of the amount of genetic diversity that has been lost over the entire period of breed evolution from when breed ancestors left this region thousands of years ago, over the several hundred years during which the proto-breed (Poodles) evolved.

Daily updated statistics are here.

See our PDF