Cream

Quick Summary

Cream is a dilution that causes the palomino, buckskin, smoky black, cremello, perlino, and smoky cream coat colors.

Palomino Example
Cream dilution on chestnut base coat (palomino)

Phenotype: Cream is a dilution that causes the palomino, buckskin, smoky black, cremello, perlino, and smoky cream coat colors.

Mode of Inheritance: Incomplete dominance

Alleles: N = Normal or non-cream, Cr = Cream

Breeds appropriate for testing: Many breeds

Explanation of Results:

  • Horses with N/N genotype will not be cream dilute and cannot transmit this cream dilution variant to their offspring.
  • Horses with N/Cr genotype are cream dilute and may transmit this cream dilute variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings with N/N genotype will result in a 50% chance of producing a cream dilute foal.
    • Horses with a chestnut base coat color and Cr/N genotype will be palomino.
    • Horses with a bay base coat color and Cr/N genotype will be buckskin.
    • Horses with a black base coat color and Cr/N genotype will be smoky black.
  • Horses with Cr/Cr genotype are double dilute and will pass this cream dilute variant on to all of their offspring. Matings with any genotype are predicted to produce all cream dilute offspring.
    • Horses with a chestnut base coat color and Cr/Cr genotype will be cremello.
    • Horses with a bay base coat color and Cr/Cr genotype will be perlino.
    • Horses with a black base coat color and Cr/Cr genotype will be smoky cream.
Price

$25 one test per animal

Panels Available
Additional Details
Buckskin, Perlino, and Smoky Black horses
A. Cream dilution on bay base coat (buckskin); B. Double cream dilution on a bay base coat (perlino); C. Mare in rear - cream dilution on a black base coat (smoky black), foal in front - double cream dilution on a bay base coat (perlino). Image credits: A by Margo Crausaz, B courtesy of Jeannette Beranger, C courtesy of Finola Mulholland, B-C from Equine Color Genetics, 4th Edition. Used with permission.

The Cream dilution gene is responsible for the palomino, buckskin, smoky black, cremello, perlino, and smoky cream coat colors. Cream dilutes red pigment (phaeomelanin) to yellow pigment in single dose (palominos, buckskins, smoky blacks) and to pale cream in double dose (cremellos, perlinos, smoky cream). The cream dilution can have a very subtle effect on black pigment (eumelanin) in the heterozygous state.

The mutation responsible for the cream dilution is in the gene MATP (c.457G>A) and is thought to disrupt the trafficking of pigment molecules to developing melanocytes (pigment producing cells). The cream mutation shows incomplete dominance, so that one copy of the cream allele (heterozygous) produces a dilute phenotype and two copies of the cream allele (homozygous) produces a more extreme dilute phenotype. Mating a cream horse (Cr/N) to a non-cream horse (N/N) will result in a 50% chance of producing offspring with the cream dilution. Mating a homozygous cream horse (Cr/Cr) with a non-cream horse (N/N) will result in cream offspring 100% of the time.

Testing for the cream dilution allows breeders to identify homozygous animals (animals with two copies of the variant) which will always produce cream dilute offspring.

Note: This test is specific for a mutation in exon 2 of the MATP gene that is associated with the cream dilution. Other dilution genes or mutations that may produce coat colors that phenotypically resemble cream will not be detected by this test.
Turnaround Time
2-6 business days
Type of Sample

Species

Breed

Crossbred Unknown Akhal Teke American Sport Horse American Sport Pony American Warmblood Andadura Andalusian Appalachian Singlefoot Appaloosa Appendix Arabian Arriador Australian Stock Horse Azteca Baden-Wurttemberg Barockpinto Baroque Pinto Bashkir Curly Bavarian Belgian Belgian Sport Horse Belgian Warmblood Brandenburg British Sport Horse Bucking Horse Burchell's Zebra Caballo Deportivo la Silla Camarillo White Canadian Horse Canadian Warmblood Caspian Horse Chapman's Zebra Chilean Horse Cleveland Bay Clydesdale Connemara Pony Continental Warmblood Costa Rican Paso Horse Cream Draft Criollo Curly Dales Pony Danish Warmblood Deutsches Reitpony Deutsches Sportpferd Draft Cross Dutch Harness Horse Dutch Warmblood Exmoor Pony Falabella Faux Friesian Fell Pony Finnhorse Fire Friesian Frederiksborg French Warmblood "Selle Francais" Friesian Friesian Cross Friesian Sporthorse Georgian Grande German Riding Pony Gotland Pony Grevy's Zebra Gypsian Gypsy Cob Gypsy Vanner Hackney Horse Hackney Pony Haflinger Half Andalusian Half Arabian Half-Marchador Hanoverian Hartmann's Zebra Heck Tarpan Hessen Hibrido Holsteiner Iberian Warmblood Iceland Pony Icelandic Horse Imperial Heritage Horse Sporthorse International Sport Pony Irish Draught Irish Hunter Kallblodstravare Kentucky Mountain Horse Kerry Bog Pony Kiang Kiger Mustang Knabstrupper Kulan Latvian Warmblood Lipizzaner Lusitano Mangalarga Mangalarga Marchador Mexican Sport Horse Miniature Horse Missouri Fox Trotter Mongolian Domestic Horse Morab Morgan Horse Moriesian Moroccan Barb Mountain Pleasure Horse Mule Mustang National Show Horse Newfoundland Pony Nokota North American Trakehner Norwegian Fjord Horse Oldenburg Onager Other Paint Horse Paso Fino Percheron Performance Horse Int'l Peruvian Paso Pinto Polish Warmblood Pony of the Americas Przewalski Pura Raza Española Quarter Horse Racking Horse Rheinland Rheinland Pfaltz-Saar Rocky Mountain Horse Russian Orloff Russian Warmblood Saddlebred Scottish Highland Pony Shetland Pony Shire Shire Crossbred Sillo Argentino Single-Footing Horse Spanish Barb Spanish Heritage Horse Spanish Mustang Spotted Saddle Horse Standardbred Suffolk Punch Swedish Warmblood Tarpan Tennessee Walking Horse Thailand Pony Thoroughbred Trakehner Trocha Trocha y Galope Trote y Galope Turbo Friesian Uruguayan Criollo Virginia Warmblood Warlander Welsh Pony Welsh Pony Weser Ems Ponies Westfalen Wild Horse Zangersheide British Spotted Pony Noriker Ardennes Norwegian Nordland Breton Comtois New Forest Pony Cob Normand Rhenish German Coldblood South German Coldblood Saxon-Thuringian Coldblood
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Type of Test

Results Reported As
Test Result Cream
N/N No copies of cream dilution detected.
N/Cr 1 copy of cream dilution detected.
Cr/Cr 2 copies of cream dilution detected.
References

Locke, M. M., Ruth, L. S., Millon, L .V., Penedo, M. C. T., Murray, J. D., & Bowling, A. T. (2001). The cream dilution gene, responsible for the palomino and buckskin coat colours, maps to horse chromosome 21. Animal Genetics, 32(6), 340-343. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2052.2001.00806.x

Mariat, D., Taourit, S., & Guérin, G. (2003). A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse. Genetics Selection Evolution, 35(1), 119-133. doi: 10.1051/gse:2002039