Factor VII Deficiency

Quick Summary

Factor VII deficiency is a mild to moderate inherited blood clotting disorder. Affected dogs may appear mostly healthy but may be prone to increased bleeding tendency.

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Phenotype: Affected dogs may appear mostly healthy but may be prone to increased bleeding tendency.

Mode of Inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Alleles: N = Normal, FVII = Factor VII deficiency

Breeds appropriate for testing: Beagle, Airedale, Alaskan Klee Kai, American Foxhound, Finnish Hound, German Wirehaired Pointer, Giant Schnauzer, Irish Water Spaniel, Japanese Spitz, Miniature Schnauzer, Papillon/Phalene, Sealyham Terrier, Scottish Deerhound, Welsh Springer Spaniel

Explanation of Results:

  • Dogs with N/N genotype will not have factor VII deficiency and cannot transmit this FVII variant to their offspring.
  • Dogs with N/FVII genotype will not have factor VII deficiency, but are carriers. They will transmit this FVII variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% factor VII deficiency-affected puppies.
  • Dogs with FVII/FVII genotype will have factor VII deficiency, a mild to moderate blood clotting disorder, and will transmit this FVII variant to all of their offspring.

Results of this test can be submitted to the OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)

Turnaround Time
At least 15 business days; may be delayed beyond 15 business days if sample requires additional testing, or a new sample is requested.

$55 single test per animal ($5 discount on 3 or more dogs)

$25 as additional health test on same animal

Sample Collection

Dog DNA tests are carried out using cells brushed from your dog's cheeks and gums. The preferred cytology brushes are sent to you by mail, or you may provide your own brushes. For accepted alternative brushes, click here

We recommend waiting until puppies are at least three weeks old before testing.


Dog having its cheeks and gums brushed for DNA samples
Cheek and gum brushing technique for canine DNA sample collection


  1. Make sure the dog has not had anything to eat or drink for at least 1 hour prior to collecting sample.
  2. When swabbing puppies, isolate each puppy from the mother, littermates and any shared toys for 1 hour prior to swabbing. Puppies should not have nursed or eaten for 1 hour prior to collecting sample.
  3. If collecting samples from more than one dog, make sure to sample one dog at a time and wash your hands before swabbing another dog.
  4. Label brush sleeve with name or ID of dog to be sampled.
  5. Open brush sleeve by arrow and remove one brush by its handle.
  6. Place bristle head between the dog’s gums and cheek and press lightly on the outside of the cheek while rubbing or rotating the brush back and forth for 15 seconds.
  7. Wave the brush in the air for 20 seconds to air dry.
  8. Insert brush back into sleeve.
  9. Repeat steps 5 - 8 for each unused brush in sleeve on a fresh area of cheek and gums. Make sure to use and return all brushes sent by the VGL. In most cases, it will be 3 brushes per dog. If using interdental gum brushes, please note that the VGL requires 4 brushes per dog and only moderate or wide interdental gum brushes are accepted.
  10. Do not seal brushes in sleeve.
  11. Place all samples in an envelope and return to the address provided.


  • Do not collect saliva/drool – the key to obtaining a good sample is getting cheek cells on the swab
  • Do not rub swab on the dog’s tongue or teeth – this will result in poor quality sample
  • Do not collect a sample from a puppy that has recently nursed – the mother’s genetic material can rub off on the puppy’s mouth and contaminate the sample
Additional Details

Factor VII is a clotting factor synthesized in the liver that is necessary to initiate blood coagulation when vascular injury occurs. Factor VII deficiency is a mild to moderate inherited blood clotting disorder present in Beagles and several other dog breeds (see "Breeds appropriate for testing" list above). It is inherited as an autosomal recessive, thus both females and males can be affected if they carry 2 copies of the defective gene; individuals with only 1 copy of the mutation are not affected.