Susceptibility to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE)

Quick Summary

Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis, is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Several genetic markers are associated with risk of developing NME.

Phenotype: NME is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Symptoms of NME include seizures, depression, ataxia, abnormal gait, and blindness. Female, fawn-colored Pugs younger than 7 years of age are more apt to develop NME than older, male, and non-fawn colored individuals.

Haplotype: N = Normal, S = NME-associated susceptibility variants

Breeds appropriate for testing: Pug

Explanation of Results:

  • Dogs with N/N haplotype have no copies of the NME-associated risk variants and are at low risk of developing necrotizing meningoencephalitis. They cannot transmit these NME risk variants to their offspring.
  • Dogs with N/S haplotype have one copy of the NME-associated risk variants and are at low risk of developing necrotizing meningoencephalitis. They may transmit these NME risk variants to 50% of their offspring.
  • Dogs with S/S haplotype have two copies of the NME-associated risk variants and are 12.75 times more likely to develop necrotizing meningoencephalitis in their lifetimes. They will transmit these NME risk variants to all of their offspring.

Results of this test can be submitted to the OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)

Price

$50 one test per animal
$30 as additional test (same animal)
$70 Susceptibility to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE) + Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKDef) (same animal)
Additional $5 discount on 3 or more dogs

Additional Details

Approximately 1.2% of Pug dogs die of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis (PDE). NME is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is usually progressive and fatal. Symptoms of NME include seizures, depression, ataxia, abnormal gait, and blindness. Female, fawn-colored Pugs younger than 7 years of age are more apt to develop NME than older, male, and non-fawn colored individuals.

Recent research has revealed that susceptibility to NME is associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) region of dog chromosome 12. The association is at or near the region containing the DLA class II genes. Dogs that are homozygous for the NME-susceptibility haplotype, ie, those with two identical copies of the NME-associated markers (denoted S/S) have an observed risk of 12.75 for NME in their lifetime over Pugs that have only one (N/S) or no (N/N) copies of these markers (observed risk of 0-1.08).

 

Note: This is NOT a diagnostic test for NME in Pugs or for NME disease/risk in other breeds. The test is only to determine risk for developing NME in Pugs and for helping select matings that will produce puppies that are at decreased risk (N/N, N/S). Although a significant proportion (11%) of Pug Dogs are homozygous S/S, only about 1 in 8 of this group will develop NME during their lifetime.
Note: Breeders are advised against breeding out the S haplotype, because 40% of Pug Dogs have the associated risk haplotype, with 29% being heterozygous (N/S) and 11% being homozygous (S/S). Eliminating the S haplotype will lead to a considerable loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, breeders should carefully select matings that do not produce S/S puppies.
Turnaround Time
3-6 business days

Species

Dog

Breed

Pug

Type of Test

Results Reported As
Test Result Susceptibility to Pug Dog Encephalitis
N/N No copies of the NME associated markers (homozygous for normal). These dogs have a low risk of developing NME.
N/S 1 copy of the NME associated markers (heterozygous for susceptibility). These dogs have a low risk of developing NME.
S/S 2 copies of the NME susceptibility associated markers. These dogs are 12.75 times more likely to develop NME in their lifetime.

The NME report includes DNA types for a panel of 8 markers selected from the International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) canine parentage panel. These markers provide individual identification for each sample tested.

References

Levine, J.M., Fosgate, G.T., Porter, B., Schatzberg, S.J., & Greer, K. (2008). Epidemiology of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 22(4), 961-968. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0137.x

Talarico, L.R., & Schatzberg, S.J. (2010). Idiopathic granulomatous and necrotising inflammatory disorders of the canine central nervous system: a review and future perspectives. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51(3), 138-149. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00823.x

Greer, K.A., Wong, A.K., Liu, H., Famula, T.R., Pedersen, N.C., Ruhe, A., Wallace, M., & Neff, M.W. (2010). Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis. Tissue Antigens, 76(2), 110-118. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01484.x

Pedersen, N., Liu, H., Millon, L., & Greer, K. (2011). Dog leukocyte antigen class II-associated genetic risk testing for immune disorders of dogs: simplified approaches using Pug dog necrotizing meningoencephalitis as a model. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(1), 68-76. doi: 10.1177/104063871102300110