Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used to screen embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine sex and genetic traits through DNA testing prior to implantation in the uterus.
Dominant white is a variable white spotting pattern caused by many different mutations in the KIT gene. The VGL tests for the four most common mutations known as W5, W10, W20, and W22. Homozygosity for W5, W10, or W22 is thought to be non-viable.
Leopard complex or appaloosa spotting is a white pattern in horses characterized by a variable amounts of white in the coat with or without pigmented leopard spots. Horses homozygous for this variant have an ocular condition known as congenital stationary night blindness.