Double Muscling in Belgian Blue Cattle

Mutations in the myostatin (MYO) gene result in muscle hypertrophy characteristic of the phenotype known as double muscling in cattle. This test only detects the nt821 variant (Del11) associated with double muscling in the Belgian Blue and other breeds.

Cattle Milk Protein Panel

This panel includes all three available tests for milk protein: beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin.

Parentage/Genetic Marker Report

This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.


Beta-lactoglobulin is the major whey protein gene. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin protein in cow's milk.


Kappa-casein is an important gene for protein yield and percentage in milk. Two common variants, A and B, are associated with different concentrations of kappa-casein protein in cow's milk.

Beta-casein (A2 Genotyping)

Genetic variants of beta-casein, a protein of cow's milk, can be classified into two groups, A1 and A2, based on the specific amino acid in position 67 of the protein. This A1 and/or A2 group designation may be of interest to breeders developing herds for human health benefits.

Progressive Ataxia in Charolais Cattle

Progressive ataxia (PA) of Charolais cattle is an inherited neurodegenerative disease affecting the hind limbs that can gradually progress until the affected animal is unable to stand.

Dominant Red (Variant Red) in Holsteins

Holsteins with the Dominant Red variant have red and white coats inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The gene underlying this coloration is independent from the other major gene (MC1R) that controls black and red color in Holstein cattle.

MC1R including Black/Red (Telstar) in Holsteins

The Melanocortin-1 Receptor gene (MC1R), also called Extension (E), controls black and red pigment production in cattle. In Holsteins, there are four known variants including Black/Red (Telstar).