Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (PRA-prcd)

Quick Summary

Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is an inherited form of late-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) that has been identified in many dog breeds.
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Phenotype: PRCD affects the photoreceptor cells in the eye involved in both night and day vision. The cells of the retina involved in low light vision, known as rods, are affected first, resulting in night blindness. Subsequently, the bright light photoreceptors known as cones, which are important for color vision, are also affected, resulting in daytime visual deficit. The age of onset and rate of progression vary among breeds, but retinal changes can be identified by screening performed by a veterinary ophthalmologist from adolescence to early adulthood. Most PRCD-affected dogs have noticeable visual impairment by 4 years of age, typically progressing to complete blindness.

Mode of Inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Alleles: N = Normal, PRCD = Progressive rod-cone degeneration

Breeds appropriate for testing: Many breeds including but not limited to: American Eskimo Dog, American Hairless Terrier, Australian Cattle Dog, Australian Cobberdog, Australian Shepherd, Black Russian Terrier, Barbet, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Chinese Crested, Chihuahua, Cockapoo, American Cocker Spaniel, Coton de Tulear, English Cocker Spaniel, English Shepherd, Entlebucher Mountain Dog, Field Spaniel, Finnish Lapphund, German Spitz, Giant Schnauzer, Golden Retriever, Golden Doodle, Jack Russell Terrier, Japanese Chin, Lab/Golden Cross, Labradoodle, Australian Labradoodle, Labradoodle/Goldendoodle Cross, Labrador Retriever, Miniature American Shepherd, Norwegian Elkhound, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Pomeranian, Poodle (Standard, Medium, Miniature and Toy), Portuguese Water Dog, Puli, Silky Terrier, Schipperke, Spanish Water Dog, Standard Poodle, Swedish Jamthund, Swedish Lapphund, Tibetan Terrier, Xoloitzcuintle, Yorkshire Terrier

Explanation of Results:

  • Dogs with N/N genotype will not have this PRCD form of progressive retinal atrophy and cannot transmit this variant to their offspring.
  • Dogs with N/PRCD genotype are not expected to be affected by this PRCD form of progressive retinal atrophy, but are carriers. They may transmit this PRCD variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% PRCD-affected puppies.
  • Dogs with PRCD/PRCD genotype are expected to develop this PRCD form of progressive retinal atrophy and will transmit this variant to all of their offspring.

Results of this test can be submitted to the OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals)

Price

$50 one test per animal
$30 as additional test (same animal)

Panels Available
Additional Details

Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) is an inherited form of late-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) that has been identified in many dog breeds. PRCD affects the photoreceptor cells in the eye involved in both night and day vision. The cells of the retina involved in low light vision, known as rods, are affected first, resulting in night blindness. Subsequently, the bright light photoreceptors known as cones, which are also important for color vision, are also affected, resulting in daytime visual deficit. The age of onset and rate of progression vary among breeds, but retinal changes can be identified by screening performed by a veterinary ophthalmologist from adolescence to early adulthood. Most PRCD-affected dogs have noticeable visual impairment by 4 years of age, typically progressing to complete blindness.

PRCD is caused by a single nucleotide change (G>A) at position 5 in the Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) gene that changes the second amino acid from cysteine to tyrosine (C2Y). This amino acid change occurs in a highly conserved region of the protein. The mode of inheritance for this disease is autosomal recessive, which means that males and females are equally affected and that two copies of the mutation are needed to cause PRCD. Exceptionally, a few dogs between 10-13 years of age have been identified that were clinically normal but had two copies of the PRCD mutation. The breeds involved in these cases were American Eskimo, American Cocker Spaniel, English Cocker Spaniel, and Toy Poodle. It has been postulated that genetic modifier(s) that have not yet been identified may play a role in the progression of the disease.

Testing for PRCD assists veterinarians with diagnosis of PRA and helps breeders identify carriers among breeding stock to select appropriate mates that will reduce the risk of producing affected offspring. To avoid the possibility of producing affected puppies, matings between known carriers are not recommended.

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a medical classification that represents several inherited forms of retinal degeneration that are caused by mutations in different genes. PRCD is one form of PRA. Thus, a normal test result for PRCD (N/N or N/PRCD) does not exclude the possibility that a dog may carry or be affected by another PRA mutation.

Turnaround Time
5-10 business days

Species

Dog

Breed

Crossbred Affenpinscher Afghan Hound Africanis Aidi Ainu Dog Airedale Terrier Akbash Dog Akita: American type Akita: Blend, Other Akita: Japanese type Akita: Unregistered Alaskan Husky Alaskan Klee Kai Alaskan Malamute Alaskan Sled Dog Alpine Dachsbracke AMB/AMBOR American Bandogge Mastiff American Blue Gascon Hound American Bulldog American Bully American Eskimo, Miniature American Eskimo, Standard American Eskimo, Toy American Foxhound American Hairless Terrier American Pit Bull Terrier American Staffordshire Terrier American Water Spaniel Anatolian Shepherd Dog Anglo-Francais de Moyen Venerie Anglo-Francais de Petite Venerie Appenzeller Ariegeois Armant Aryan Molossus Aussiedoodle Australian Cattle Dog Australian Cobberdog Australian Domestic Dog Australian Kelpie Australian Labradoodle Australian Shepherd Australian Shepherd, Miniature Australian Terrier Austrian Black & Tan Hound Austrian Pinscher Austrian Shorthaired Pinscher Austrian Smoothhaired Hound Azawakh Bali Street Dog Barbet Basenji Basque Sheepdog Basset Artesian Normand Basset Bleu de Gascogne Basset Fauve de Bretagne Basset Hound Bavarian Mountain Hound Beagle Beagle Harrier Bearded Collie Beauceron Bedlington Terrier Belgian Griffon Belgian Laekenois Belgian Malinois Belgian Mastiff Belgian Sheepdog Belgian Tervuren Bergamasco Berger de Pyrenees, Smooth Muzzled Berger du Languedoc Berger Picard Berner Laufhund Berner Neiderlaufhund Bernese Mountain Dog Bichon Frise Biewer Biewer Terrier Biewer Yorkshire Terrier Biewer, Biro Billy Black & Tan Coonhound Black Forest Hound Black Mouth Cur Black Russian Terrier Bloodhound Blue Lacy Bluetick Coonhound Bolognese Border Collie Border Collie Cross Border Terrier Borzoi Bosnian Roughhaired Hound Boston Terrier Bouvier Des Ardennes Bouvier Des Flandres Boxer Boykin Spaniel Bracco Italiano Braque d'Auvergne Braque de l'Ariège Braque du Bourbonnais Braque Dupuy Braque Francais, de Grande Taille Braque Francais, de Petite Taille Braque Saint-Germain Brazilian Terrier Briard Briquet Griffon Vendeen Brittany Broholmer Bruno Jura Laufhund Brussels Griffon Bull Terrier Bulldog Bullmastiff Ca De Bestier Cairn Terrier Canaan Dog Canadian Cur Canadian Eskimo Dog Cane Corso Canis lupus Cardigan Welsh Corgi Carolina Dog Catahoula Leopard Dog Catalan Sheepdog Caucasian Ovcharka Cavalier King Charles Spaniel CB Romanesc Carpatin Central Asian Shepherd Cesky Fousek Cesky Terrier Chart Polski Chesapeake Bay Retriever Chien d'Artois Chien Francais Blanc et Noir Chien Francais Blanc et Orange Chien Francais Blanc et Tricolore Chihuahua Chinese Crested Chinese Foo Dog Chinook Chortaj Chow Chow Cimarron Uruguayo Cirneco dell'Etna Clumber Spaniel Cockapoo Cocker Spaniel, American Cocker Spaniel, Unknown Variety Collie Cook Island Feral Dog Coton de Tulear Coyote Croatian Sheepdog Curly-Coated Retriever Czech Wolfdog Czechoslovakian Vlcak Dachshund Dalmatian Dandie Dinmont Terrier Danish Broholmer Danish/Swedish Farmdog Denmark Feist Deutsch Kooiker Deutsch-Drahthaar Deutsche Bracke Deutscher Wachtelhund Dingo Doberman Pinscher Dogo Argentino Dogue de Bordeaux Drentse Patrijshond Drever Dunker Dutch Malinois Dutch Shepherd, Longhaired Dutch Shepherd, Roughhaired Dutch Shepherd, Shorthaired Dutch Smoushond East European Shepherd East Siberian Laika English Bulldog English Cocker Spaniel English Coonhound English Foxhound English Mastiff English Setter English Shepherd English Springer Spaniel English Toy Spaniel English Toy Terrier Entlebucher Epagneul Bleu de Picardie Epagneul Breton Epagneul Francais Epagneul Picard Epagneul Pont-Audemer Estonian Hound Estrela Mountain Dog Eurasian Farm Collie Fell Hound Fell Sheepdog Field Spaniel Fila Brasileiro Finnish Hound Finnish Lapphund Finnish Spitz Flat-Coated Retriever Fox Fox Terrier, Smooth Fox Terrier, Wire French Bulldog Galgo Espanol German Drahthaar German Hunt Terrier German Longhaired Pointer German Pinscher German Sheeppoodle German Shepherd German Shorthaired Pointer German Wirehaired Pointer German Wolfspitz Giant German Spitz Giant Schnauzer Glen of Imaal Terrier Golden Retriever Goldendoodle Gordon Setter Gr Ang-Fr Tricolor Hound Gr Ang-Fr W & B Hound Gr Ang-Fr W & O Hound Grand Anglo-Francais Grand Basset Griffon Vendeen Grand Bleu de Gascogne Grand Gascon-Saintongeois Grand Griffon Vendeen Great Dane Great Pyrenees Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Greek Harehound Greek Sheepdog Greenland Dog Greyhound Griffon Bleu De Gascogne Griffon Fauve de Bretagne Griffon Nivernais Haldenstovare Hamiltonstovare Hanoverian Hound Harlequin Pinscher Harrier Havana Silk Havanese Hawaiian Poi Dog Heading Dog Hertha Pointer Hovawart Huntaway Hygenhund Ibizan Hound Iceland Dog Inca Hairless Dog Inuit Sled Dog Inuit Sled Dog Mix Irish Red & White Setter Irish Setter Irish Terrier Irish Water Spaniel Irish Wolfhound Islandsk Farehund Istrian Hound, Smoothhaired Istrian Hound, Wirehaired Italian Greyhound Italian Hound Jack Russell Terrier Japanese Chin Japanese Spitz Japanese Terrier Jindo Dog Jura Neiderlaufhund Kai Dog Kangal Dog Kangaroo Dog Karakachan Karelian Bear Dog Karelo-Finnish Laika Kayo Inu Keeshond Kerry Beagle Kerry Blue Terrier King Shepherd Kintamani Dogs Kishu Komondor Kooikerhondje Koolie Korean German Shepherd Kraski Ovcar Kromfohrlander Kuvasz Kyi Leo Labradoodle Labrador Retriever LabxGolden Laekense Lagotto Romagnolo Lakeland Terrier Lamalese Lancashire Heeler Landseer Lapinporokoira Lapponian Herder Large Munsterlander Large Spanish Hound Latvian Hound Leonberger Leopard Cur Leopard Hound Levesque Lhasa Apso Lithuanian Hound Llewellin Setter Lowchen Lundehund Lurcher Luzerner Laufhund Luzerner Neiderlaufhund Magyar Agar Majestic Tree Hound Maltese Manchester Terrier Manchester Terrier, Toy Maremma Sheepdog Maremma Sheepdog Mastiff Matthes Lion Hound McNab Middle Asian Owtcharka Mi-Ki Miniature American Shepherd Miniature Bull Terrier Miniature Goldendoodle Miniature Pinscher Montenegrin Mountain Hound Moscow Longhaired Toy Terrier Moscow Watchdog Mountain Cur Mudi Mullins Feist Native American Indian Dog Neapolitan Mastiff New Guinea Singing Dog Newfoundland Norfolk Terrier Norrbottenspets North American Shepherd Northeasterly Hauling Laika Norwegian Buhund Norwegian Elkhound Norwegian Elkhound, Black Norwegian Lundehund Norwich Terrier Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Old Danish Bird Dog Old English Sheepdog Olde English Bulldogge Otterhound Owczarek Podhalanski Papillon Parson Russell Terrier Patterdale Terrier Pekingese Pembroke Welsh Corgi Perdiguero de Burgos Perdiguero Navarro Perdiguero Portugueso Perro de Pastor Mallorquin Perro de Presa Canario Perro de Presa Mallorquin Peruvian Hairless Dog Peruvian Inca Orchid Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen Petit Bleu de Gascogne Petit Brabancon Petit Gascon-Saintongeois Petit Griffon Bleu de Gascogne Phalene Pharaoh Hound Pit Bull Plott Hound Podenco Canario Podengo Portugueso Grande Podengo Portugueso Medio Podengo Portugueso Pequeno, Smooth Podengo Portugueso Pequeno, Wirehaired Pointer Poitevin Polish Hound Polish Lowland Sheepdog Polish Owczarek Podhalanski Polski Owczarek Nizinny Pomeranian Pomsky Poodle, Miniature Poodle, Standard Poodle, Toy Poongsan Dog Porcelaine Portuguese Cattle Dog Portuguese Pointer Portuguese Sheepdog Portuguese Water Dog Posavac Hound Prager Ratter Pudelpointer Pug Puli Pumi Pyrenean Mastiff Pyrenean Shepherd Rafeiro do Alentejo Rat Terrier Red & White Setter Redbone Hound Rhodesian Ridgeback Ridgeback Cross Rottweiler Rumanian Sheepdog Russell Terrier Russian Harlequin Hound Russian Hound Russian Samoyed Laika Russian Spaniel Russkiy Toy Russo-European Laika Saarlooswolfhond Sabuesos Espanol de Monte Sabuesos Espanol Lebrero Saint Bernard Saint Hubert Jura Laufhund Saint Usage Spaniel Saluki Samoyed Sanshu Dog Santal Hound Sapsaree Sarplaninac Schapendoes Schillerstovare Schipperke Schnauzer, Miniature Schnauzer, Standard Schweizer Laufhund Schweizer Neiderlaufhund Scottish Collie Scottish Deerhound Scottish Terrier Sealyham Terrier Segugio Italiano a Pelo Forte Segugio Italiano a Pelo Raso Seppala Siberian Sleddog Serbian Hound Serbian Tricolor Hound Shar Pei Shetland Sheepdog Shiba Inu Shih Tzu Shikoku Shiloh Shepherd Dog Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA Siberian Husky Silken Windhound Silky Terrier Skye Terrier Sloughi Slovak Cuvac Slovakian WH Pointing Dog Smalandsstovare Small German Spitz Small Munsterlander Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier South African Boerboel Mastiff South Russian Ovcharka South Russian Steppe Hound Spanish Alano Spanish Mastiff Spanish Water Dog Spinone Italiano Sporting Lucas Terrier Springer Spaniel Sri Lankan Dog Stabyhoun Staffordshire Bull Terrier Standard German Spitz Stephens Stock Stichelhaar Strellufstover Stumpy-Tail Cattle Dog Styrian Roughhaired Mountain Hound Sudanese Dog Sussex Spaniel Swedish Elkhound Swedish Lapphund Swedish Vallhund Tahltan Bear Dog Taigan Tamaskan Tasy Teddy Roosevelt Terrier Telomian Tengger Dog Tenterfield Terrier Thai Ridgeback Thornburg Feist Tibetan Mastiff Tibetan Spaniel Tibetan Terrier Tosa Inu Tosa Ken Toy Fox Terrier Toy German Spitz Transylvanian Hound, Long Transylvanian Hound, Short Treeing Feist Treeing Tennessee Brindle Treeing Walker Coonhound Turkish Feral Dog Turkish Greyhound Tyrolean Hound Tyroler Bracke Vasgotaspets Vizsla Volpino Italiano Walker Coonhound Weimaraner Welsh Hound Welsh Sheepdog Welsh Springer Spaniel Welsh Terrier West Highland White Terrier West Siberian Laika Westphalian Dachsbracke Wetterhoun Whippet Whippet, Longhaired Whippet, Longhaired Cross White Shepherd Wirehaired Pointing Griffon Wirehaired Vizsla Wolf Wolf Hybrid Working Dog X-Bred Coonhound Xoloitzcuintli Xoloitzcuintli, Toy Yorkshire Terrier Unknown
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Type of Test

Results Reported As
Test Result Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration

N/N

No copies of the PRCD mutation detected. Dog is clear of this mutation.

N/PRCD

1 copy of the PRCD mutation detected. Dog is a carrier. If bred to another carrier, 25% of offspring are predicted to be affected.

PRCD/PRCD

2 copies of the PRCD mutation detected. Dog is likely to be affected and develop progressive retinal atrophy.

References

Zangerl, B., Goldstein, O., Philp, A.R., Lindauer, S.J., Pearce-Kelling, S.E., Mullins, R.F., Graphodatsky, A.S., Ripoll, D., Felix, J.S., Stone, E.M., Acland, G.M., & Aguirre, G.D. (2006). Identical mutation in a novel retinal gene causes progressive rod-cone degeneration in dogs and retinitis pigmentosa in humans. Genomics, 88(5), 551-563. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.07.007

Dostál, J., Hrdlicová, A., & Horák, P. (2011). Progressive rod-cone degeneration (PRCD) in selected dog breeds and variability in its phenotypic expression. Veterinarni Medicina, 56(5), 243–247. doi: 10.17221/1564-VETMED